Translation, simply put, refers to converting a text or words from one language to another. The aim of translation is to replicate a particular set of words from a source to a target language in a manner that is concise, clear and coherent. The ultimate result of translating a text is effective communication between two or more parties who are versed in languages different from one another.
The first ever text to be translated in the history of mankind was the holy Bible from classical Greek to English in the sixteenth century. Ever since, translation has continued to build bridges and break barriers between countries. Although the practice of translation began its journey with cultural exchanges, in the present times, it fosters international trade, commerce and relations. Translation sector provides employment to a huge chunk of masses. In the future, these numbers are expected to rise exponentially.
“A translator is a reader, an interpreter and a creator all in one”
The given quote by Bijay Kumar Das points out the fact that the job of a good translator involves the work of interpretation as well, which in turn, makes him/her a creator in true sense of the term. Interpretation of a text involves retaining the essence of original document. Word-to-word translation is more of a mechanical process that distorts the real message that was intended in the first place. Real translation is more of a comprehensive exercise which takes into account actual context, conventions and rules of grammar. Needless to mention, a good translator must be fluent in both the languages. Besides, adequate knowledge of history, culture and phonetics is further going to generate better results.
Translation can be of many types. Some of the prominent ones are discussed as below.